This page is a work in progress.

Evidence supports the fact that child sexual abuse, prostitution, pornography, sex trafficking and sexual violence are not isolated phenomena occurring in a vacuum. Rather, these and other forms of sexual abuse and exploitation overlap and reinforce one another.

In order to tackle them effectively, it’s important to take a step backwards and identify the strong and seamless connections between different forms of sexual exploitation.

“Although described as separate entities, Web-based, video, and print pornography are integral to the sex industry, including prostitution and trafficking. Legal brothel owners have attempted to “cross fertilize” prostitution with legal adult businesses such as strip clubs, Internet sex sites and pornography.”1

Child-on-child Sexual Abuse and Pornography

Harmful sexual behavior carried out by children and young people accounts for about half of all child sexual abuse perpetration.2There has been a startling rise in the reported cases of child-on-child sexual abuse and assault in the UK. In the 4 years up until 2017:

  • Allegations of children committing sexual offences against other children rose 78%… in just four years…”3
  • The number of reported rapes among under-18s rose 46%
  • Reports of sexual offences on schools premises also increased from 386 in 2013-14 to 922 in 2016-17, according to 31 police forces – including 225 rapes on school grounds over the four years.

Experts often “ blame the rise in the availability of online pornography”4for this increase. Today, pornography consumption is common among young people. 60% were 14 years-old or younger when they first saw porn online5. Rates of unwanted exposure to pornography are increasing, and are higher amongst teenagers, young people who report being harassed or sexually solicited/ victimised offline, and those who are borderline or clinically depressed.6

In recent research commissioned by the NSPCC, 87% of boys and 77% of girls felt that pornography failed to help them understand consent.7According to a study by the University of Middlesex: “Viewing pornography can lead to the development of antagonistic and unhealthy views towards women and sexuality and can contribute to creating environments of greater tolerance and less disapproval of unwanted sex. Pornography has been linked to sexually coercive behaviour among young people, and, for young women, viewing pornography is linked with higher rates of sexual harassment and forced sex.”’8Sarah Thomas, of the charity New Pathways, says: “I do believe that there’s a lot of blurred boundaries with children and young people, knowing what is ok and acceptable and what isn’t acceptable.” Sarah Thomas, New Pathways charity.9

Pornography as a Tool for Child Sexual Abuse

Exposure to pornography may increase children’s and young people’s own vulnerability to sexual abuse and exploitation. Some adult perpetrators expose children to pornography as part of a deliberate grooming strategy.10

Academics identify 3 main ways in which pornography is used as a grooming tool by abusers:

  • The offenders’ use of pornography to pique sexual feelings or curiosity in children
  • The use of pornography to blackmail children into keeping quiet about abuse
  • Their use of pornography to crease a sexualised environment conducive to abuse.11

“The offender will often use ‘forbidden fruit’ type activities such as cursing, telling ‘dirty jokes’ or showing the child pornography to introduce sexual themes into their conversations. This latter stage not only begins to normalise sexual behaviour but may also be used to entrap the child further. The use of pornography in particular may encourage feelings of shame and guilt which the offender may explicit by persuading the child that they were willing accomplices in their activities.” Legal theorist Anne-Marie McAlinden12

Pornography and Sexual Harassment

In a 2018, the Women and Equalities Committee published a report on the sexual harassment of women and girls in public places. According to the former culture secretary Maria Miller: “Sexual harassment in public places is a regular experience for many women and girls in the street, in bars and clubs, on buses and trains, at university and online. It is the most common form of violence against women and girls and the damage is far-reaching. And yet most of it goes unreported.” 13

The committee recognised the link between pornography and sexual harassment: “There is significant research suggesting that there is a relationship between the consumption of pornography and sexist attitudes and sexually aggressive behaviours, including violence.”14Its report demands urgent action to tackle sexual harassment, including tougher action on pornography: “The Government should take an evidence-based approach to addressing the harms of pornography, similar to the huge investment there has been over many years in tackling road safety or preventing public health problems caused by activities such as smoking.”15

“There is a connection between sexual objectification and empathy – the emotional response that respects, prioritises, and cares about the perceived welfare of another person…. empathy and sexual objectification are incompatible.”16

Child Sexual Abuse and Commercial Sexual Exploitation

Childhood sexual abuse is a well-established risk factor for juvenile prostitution.17The charity ECPAT found that, in the majority of cases, there had been serious child protection concerns within the family. ‘Physical and sexual abuse were frighteningly common.’18

“Child sexual abuse is associated with adverse outcomes, including heightened vulnerability that may translate into risk of revictimization…”19

A study of 200 juvenile and adult street prostitutes documented “extremely high levels of sexual child abuse in their background.”

  • 60% were sexually exploited by an average of two people each, over an average period of 20 months.
  • 66% were sexually abused by father figures.
  • The abuse had extremely negative emotional, physical, and attitudinal impacts.
  • 70% of the women reported that the sexual exploitation definitely affected their decision to become a prostitute. The others reflected the influence in their open-ended comments.20

“I had no self-worth. From the ages of four through to seven I was the victim of commercial sexual exploitation- with a family friend pimping me out to his friends, strangers, and anyone else interested, Instead of learning that my body was private, mine, something special to treasure and look after, I learned that it was a commodity to be used exclusively for the pleasure of men in exchange for money or goods.” Charlotte- child abuse victim and former prostitute21

…These men destroyed any chance I had at developing into a normal human being. …By the time I’d met my first john I had been groomed into prostitution through culturally normalised child abuse.22

Young people most susceptible to online grooming are those vulnerable in other areas. According to a review by the Childhood Wellbeing Research Centre: “Whilst safety messages appear to be getting through to the majority of resilient young people, there appears to be a group of young people susceptible to online grooming characterised by vulnerability factors that include; low self-esteem, loneliness, self-harming behaviour, family break-up, and incidence of ongoing sexual abuse by other offenders.”23

Sexts, Sexual Coercion and Dating Violence

In a porn-saturated world, it is only natural that people (and especially young people) will want to act out what they see. Sexting involves the generation of self-produced explicit images sent over mobile phones. It’s often perceived as harmless, “ a healthy form of sexual exploration where it is consensual.”

However, there is growing awareness of the high risks involved in sexting, which is associated with coercion, cyber bullying, harassment, sexual abuse and pornographic use of the images.

In a major study of 1334 young people (aged 13-30):

  • 13% sexted during substance use at least once;
  • 30% had been forced to sext by a partner at least once;
  • 10% had been forced to sext by friends at least once;
  • 95% had sent sexts to strangers;
  • 59% had sent sexts about someone else [sometimes referred to as “secondary sexting”] without her/his consent at least once.24

The study revealed that sexting ‘a relationship between sexting and dating violence: “Specifically, moderate and high users of sexting are more likely to be perpetrators of dating violence, including online, than low users of sexing.”25

Several studies have found that coercive sexting “increases the probability of being victimised within a dating relationship.“ 26Offline sexual coercion was significantly associated with sending and being asked for a naked image, as well as receiving a naked image without giving permission.27

So-called ‘sextortion’ (threats to expose sexual images to coerce victims to provide additional pictures, sex, or other favors) is on the rise. In a major 2018 study of sextortion found that it often co-occured with dating violence:28

  • Almost 60% of respondents who were minors when sextortion occurred knew the perpetrators in person, often as romantic partners.
  • Most knowingly provided images to perpetrators (75%), but also felt pressured to do so (67%).
  • About one-third were threatened with physical assaults and menaced for >6 months.
  • Half did not disclose incidents and few reported to the police (or even online)
  • Perpetrators against minors (vs. adults) were more likely to pressure victims into producing initial sexual images, demand additional images, threaten victims for at least 6 months, and urge victims to harm themselves.

There’s also been a huge rise in ‘sextortion’ by crime gangs (often based in the Philippines) who use social media to entrap victims. These mostly target young men with fake online dating profiles, who are encouraged to film themselves performing sex acts (using a pre-recorded video purporting to show them doing the same). This footage is secretly recorded and then used to blackmail the target with the threat of sharing the footage with their family and friends unless they pay a large sum of money. This kind of traumatic financial exploitation has led at least five British men and boys to commit suicide.29

Pornography and Prostitution

Pornography is prostitution for mass consumption. The dawn of high-speed internet has led to a massive spike in the demand of this kind of prostitution. The factors of vulnerability that drive women into the porn industry are the same as those that drive women into prostitution.30

“Pornography really is prostitution on screen… The traffickers are the same, the pimps are the same. They just have a camera in the room. The women and girls, and men and boys, are the same victims that are being sold in the sex trade.” Taina Bien-Aimé, Executive Director of the Coalition Against Trafficking in Women31

“Pornography is the most glorified type of prostitution there is. It’s a billion-dollar legal industry.”32

Pornography and Sex Trafficking

We assume the pornography that we view is made with the full consent of those involved- but this is only an assumption. Any content can be uploaded and packaged up as porn; there’s no guarantee that its production was fair and free.

Survivors of sex trafficking regularly share that in the course of being prostituted, the sex acts they performed were frequently recorded, distributed, and uploaded to the Internet.33 According to a 2007 study of 854 women in nine countries, 49% of sex-trafficked women said that pornography had been made of them while they were in prostitution. 47% said they’d been harmed by men who’d either forced or tried to force them to do things they’d seen in porn.

Pornography is also used to train sex trafficking victims. Plus, perpetrators make pornographic videos of their victims in order to further control/blackmail them, and to maximize the financial gain they receive from them.34

“One female survivor, whose captor slept on top of her at night so she wouldn’t escape, watched her through a hole when she went to the bathroom, and listened to her phone calls with a gun pointed at her head, was forced to appear in a video that made the Sinclair Intimacy Institute’s list of “sex positive productions”!” 35“Every time someone watches that film,” she said, “they are watching me being raped.”

Many former porn performers describe the porn industry as being rife with deception, coercion and exploitation. Dawn Hawkins, of the US National Centre of Sexual Exploitation, shares: “the 20+ performers I have talked to (some still involved in porn) have all shared stories with me that they were forced and coerced many times over. Drugs, alcohol, physical abuse, blackmail, threats, fake legal documents, deceitful enticing, promises of fame and money and so much more are used to get the girls to perform what and how the producers desire.”36

Slider Quotes: “Pornography may meet the legal definition of trafficking to the extent that the pornographer recruits, entices, or obtains the people depicted in pornography for the purpose of photographing commercial sex acts.”37

”For pornography, women and children are recruited, transported, provided, and obtained for sex acts on account of which, typically, money is given to pornography pimps and received by lesser pimps. Then, each time the pornography is commercially exchanged, the trafficking continues as the women and children in it are transported and provided for sex, sold, and bought again. Doing all these things for the purpose of exploiting the prostitution of others-which pornography intrinsically does-makes it trafficking in persons.”38

Pornography and Sexual Aggression

Mainstream pornography teaches users that women enjoy sexual violence. Analysis of the 50 most popular pornographic videos (those bought and rented most often) found that 88% of scenes contained physical violence and 49% contained verbal aggression. 87% percent of aggressive acts were perpetrated against women, and 95% of their responses were either neutral or expressions of pleasure.39

Robert Jenson notes that virtually all mainstream pornography that does not touch on these themes almost always gives out the message that:
(1) all women, at all times, want sex from all men
(2) women enjoy all the sexual acts that men perform or demand, and
(3) women who do not at first realize this can be easily persuaded with a little force.40

The tolerance of such material relies on a firm distinction between the ‘fantasy’ world of pornography and the ‘real’ world. However, research has proven that the consumption of pornography does affect real-world attitudes, increasing verbal and physical aggression41 and putting users at increasing risk of committing sexual offenses and accepting rape myths.42

“Consumers might tell themselves that they aren’t personally affected by porn, that they won’t be fooled into believing its underlying messages, but studies suggest otherwise. There is clear evidence that porn makes many
consumers more likely to support violence against women, to believe that women secretly enjoy being raped43, and to actually be sexually aggressive in real life.44The aggression may take many forms including verbally harassing or pressuring someone for sex, emotionally manipulating them, threatening to end the relationship unless they grant favors, deceiving them or lying to them about sex, or even physically assaulting them.”45

This association is strongest for violent pornography and still reliable for nonviolent pornography, particularly by frequent users.46

Research shows that:

  • Adults exposed to pornography are more likely to hold attitudes supportive of sexual aggression and behavioural aggression.47
  • Exposure to any kind of pornography increases rape-supportive attitudes- and seeing the violent type increases violence-supportive attitudes as well, plus it erodes empathy for victims of violence.48
  • High-frequency users of pornography and men who use ‘hardcore’, violent or rape pornography, are more likely to report that they would rape or sexually harass a woman if they knew they could get away with it.They’re also more likely to perpetrate sexual coercion and aggression.49
  • There is a circular relationship among some men between sexual violence and pornography: ‘Men who are relatively high in risk for sexual aggression are more likely to be attracted to and aroused by sexually violent media… and may be more likely to be influenced by them’50

“The use of pornography by batterers significantly increased a battered woman’s odds of being sexually abused. Pornography use alone increased the odds by a factor of almost 2, and the combination of pornography and alcohol increased the odds of sexual abuse by a factor of 3.”51 Other research has found that pornography use by batters is associated with learning about sex through pornography, imitation of behaviors seen in pornography, comparison of women to pornography performers, introduction of other sexual partners, filming sexual acts without consent, and the broader culture of pornography (e.g., fetishes).”52

Pornography, Sexual Abuse & Deviant Sex

Mainstream hardcore pornography trivialises sexually-abusive themes. It commonly includes teenagers and children, incest, racism, slavery, rape, and extreme violence (which is almost always against the female performers).53 These deviant themes are popular, and increasing in popularity.

Although pornography featuring underage girls is strictly illegal, young-looking women are childified with props to make them appear as though they’re underage. This sub-genre is known as “teen porn”, and searches for the term have increased several times over in recent years.54

Incest was the fasted growing trend in porn in 201855. Something as serious as familial rape is trivialised as harmless fun- for example, a porn film called “Stepfamily Sex Therapy”sold by Comcast in 2017: “Here’s the ultimate stepfamily mash-up packed with stepmom, stepdad & stepdaughter interracial orgy mash ups including filthy pecker-hungry aunts, horny old uncles and perverted friends next door.”

Other titles include:
▪ Ivory Daughters Do Bros – Mad Dads Watch
▪ Gangbang Ambush 3
▪ 18YOs Blindfolded & Slammed
▪ Sweet Babysitters Drenched in Spunk
▪ Stepdaddy Creampied by Crack
▪ 100 Nasty Face Blasts 2
▪ Daughters & Black Stepmoms Share BroMeat
▪ Ten Cute Girls Tainted by Black Meat
▪ Teen Anal Ravage

The rape (‘Gangbang Ambush’), painful/ forced sex (‘Teen Anal Ravage’/ ‘Slamming’) racism (‘Tainted by Black Meat’), and underage sex (‘sweet babysitters’) implied in these porn films would be utterly appalling if they had occurred as ‘real life’ incidents. However, in pornography, the usual social norms of respect and equality are suspended, and the abuse is portrayed as pleasurable.

“Probably 30 percent of people exclusively watch stuff that you would find disgusting.” Seth Stephens-Davidowitz after searching through porn data56

Mainstream Internet Pornography & Child Abuse Images

There has been a staggering explosion in the production and distribution of child abuse images since the dawn of high speed internet. In 2018, more than 100,000 web pages of children being abused were removed from the internet.IwF57

The knowledge that images and recordings of their abuse is circling around the internet in the name of entertainment and sexual gratification has a deeply traumatising effect on survivors: “ It’s not just the trauma… I live with the constant fear the photos taken of me being raped as a boy by older men will surface somewhere someday…” Richard, CSA Survivor58

However, it’s important to recognise the interconnectivity of mainstream, deviant and child sexual abuse images. A survey from a general population of Internet pornography users found that those who consumed porn depicting child sexual abuse also consumed hardcore pornography and animal pornography; there were none who collected only child sexual abuse images. It found that child pornography was more likely to be sought out as a progression from mainstream pornography, particularly for those with an early first age of onset.59

A separate study examining men charged for the possession of child sexual abuse images found that 60% also used ‘deviant’ pornography (e.g. bestiality, sexual acts involving excrement, brutality). They were also more likely to subscribe to commercial websites containing legal porn.60

Child Abuse Images & Shifting Preferences

There is a lot of evidence that pornography influences users’ attitudes and adoptions of particular sexual behaviours.61 Long-term pornography consumption leads to an escalation in tastes and preferences (an effect is particularly notable when users begin to watch pornography at a young age).Heavy porn use can lead to the crystallization of sexual desire for children in users who had no explicit prior interest.62 Interviews with sex offenders reveal a pattern of prolonged exposure to pornography and gradual desensitisation, leading to an escalation of tastes that can lead to the development of paedophilic desire.63

Pornography & Sex Buying

There is an association between pornography use and the purchase of commercial sex acts.64Men who buy sex consume more (and more types of) pornography than non sex-buyers.65They’re also more likely to report that their sexual tastes and preferences have changed over time, and to have sought more sadomasochistic and anal sex.66 Some men use pornography to build sexual excitement before buying sex; others seek to enact what they have seen in pornography with prostitutes.67

Slider Quotes: “There’s no ‘how to’ when learning to be a prostitute… I would be left with bruises all over my body from the rough sex, men always wanted to imitate hard core porn, acting out the sexual violence they were feeding on.” Jade, former prostitute68

“These demands now include practices that did not exist 20 years ago – practices learnt from Internet pornography…. Men would ask me what the women did. It was clear they wanted what they saw in pornography and I knew what they wanted because I was watching hard-core porn every shift. Porn never has condoms, there will be three men ejaculating on a woman’s face, verbal abuse, anal sex, choking, hair pulling, slapping – and this was just ordinary mainstream porn.”Jacqueline Gwynne, former receptionist at a Melbourne brothel69

“The violent porn broadcast throughout most brothels puts us all in danger. A lot of men wanted re-enactments straight from pornography. It was harder to get booked unless you agreed to re-enact porn and offer anal.” Linda, former prostitute70

Strip Clubs, Prostitution & Trafficking

Strip clubs like to define themselves as part of the leisure industry, more  ‘socially-acceptable’ than brothels. However, there is a lot of evidence that lap dancing has strong links to other aspects of the sex industry.71For that reason, UK councils now licence strip clubs as sexual entertainment venues.

Although sexual services are strictly forbidden, they are often on offer- and expected by many customers. Clubs regularly breach their own house rules, employment laws and licencing conditions. According to research commissioned by Glasgow and London city council, women are encouraged to drink on the premises and often feel under pressure to offer ‘extras’: “The lack of employment rights, the experience of accumulating debt, expectations of the customers and fierce competition create a climate where the selling and buying of sex on the premises becomes more likely.”

“Strip clubs provide the perfect learning environment for sexually toxic attitudes and behaviors. Leering, jeering, sexual touching, and lap dancing are everyday occurrences in strip clubs throughout the world. In “VIP” rooms and back rooms, acts of prostitution, sexual assaults, and sexual trafficking are the norm.”72

“Within the industry there’s trafficking, prostitution, money laundering, fraud, drug and alcohol abuse and it’s an industry that not many people know or understand.” Sammy Woodhouse, former lap dancer73

“Stripping is a gateway into prostitution, it’s the place where the training begins. Until we as a society recognize all forms of sexual exploitation including ‘stripping’ we will never end the vicious cycle of sex-trafficking and prostitution.”Vednita Carter, Executive Director of Breaking Free74

Juvenile Prostitution & Adult Prostitution

Those who defend prostitution do so on the basis that it is a woman’s choice. However, this choice is only valid once she is of age; underage prostitution is always illegal and adult prostitution is distinguished from child prostitution.

“However, it is is common for women in prostitution to begin working before they are adults; mostly, they are runaways and have very difficult backgrounds. The fact is that “adults and children are not two separate groups of people. They are the same group of people at two points in time. Too, this is why nothing effective can be done for one without doing it for both. Those children for whom nothing was done who managed not to die yet are most of today’s prostituted women.” K. McKinnon75

Prostitution & Sexual Harassment, Abuse and Rape

“For all the ways it is marketed, the sex trade boils down to a very simple product concept: a person (usually a man) can pay to sexually access the body of someone (usually a woman), who does not freely want to have sex with him. He knows that’s the case – otherwise he wouldn’t have to pay her to be there. The money isn’t coincidence, it’s coercion. And we have a term for that: sexual abuse.”76

As a liberal Western democracy, we recognise the inherent harms in sexual harassment, abuse and rape. They are utterly incompatible with women’s human rights and liberties, which is why we feel a sense of outrage at news of sex scandals involving politicians, charities or men like Harvey Weinstein.

However, when it comes to the sex industry, we make exceptions: “there is a clear double standard. In prostitution, the exchange of money acts to legitimise behavior that would otherwise be considered harmful, immoral and illegal.”

The abuse that we do not tolerate in any other context is inherent to prostitution:“There are thousands of books and classes that provide women with information on self-defense and rape “avoidance” strategies. Some of the basic lessons they teach us are not to walk alone at night on dark deserted streets, not to get into cars with strange men, not to pick up guys in a bar, not to even let a delivery man into your home when you’re by yourself. Yet this is what the “job” of prostitution requires; that women put themselves in jeopardy every time they turn a trick. And then we ask, “How do you prevent it from leading to danger?” The answer is, you can’t. Count the bodies.”77

No one denies that prostitution is deeply harmful to the women involved and yet we tolerate, even defend women’s ‘right’ to suspend their fundamental human rights: “Prostitution is set apart from everything that people are me-tooing about. People would not be appalled if Harvey Weinstein or Bill Cosby or Woody Allen did what they did to prostituted women.” 78

“Sexual harassment is what prostitution is. If you remove the sexual harassment, there is no prostitution. If you remove unwanted sex acts, there is no prostitution. If you eliminate paid rape, there is no prostitution.”79

“I understood it by feeling my body used as a masturbatory object by thousands of men who, of course, know that the sex they buy is unwanted. Otherwise they wouldn’t pay for it. Using cash to buy someone’s entrance into the body is an act of sexual violence in itself per se. I know because I’ve lived through it and saw it happen to many others, and not all have survived. I am obliged to tell the truth about the harm men do to women when, for their sexual selfishness, they are willing to treat other human beings as living and breathing dolls. These men know perfectly well the evil they’re committing. That’s why none of them want their mothers, sisters and daughters going to work in brothels.”Rachel Moran80

Prostitution and Human Trafficking

Those who defend the sex industry draw a clear distinction between prostitution that’s freely chosen and forced prostitution known as ‘sex trafficking’.

To most people, the term ‘trafficking’ conjures up images of women and children being kidnapped, threatened with violence and forced into sexual slavery against their will. This is one form of trafficking that’s serious and increasing: trafficking is the fastest growing criminal enterprise in the world, and sex trafficking is extremely lucrative. In the EU 69% of all trafficking victims identified have been trafficked for sexual exploitation.81

However, it must be noted that, according to the United Nation’s so-called Palermo Protocol (endorsed by the UK), trafficking can be “the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring or receipt of persons, by means of the threat or use of force or other forms of coercion, of abduction, of fraud, of deception, of the abuse of power or of a position of vulnerability … for the purpose of exploitation.”82

Trafficking does not have to involve violence, kidnapping or border crossing. What’s more, consent of the person so trafficked is irrelevant for liability purposes.83

Of the women who choose to enter prostitution, the overwhelming majority are marked by conditions of vulnerability, be they race, age, gender, poverty, prior abuse, homelessness and substance dependence.84 Many experience coercion at the hands of a pimp, partner or relative.85

This explains why Sigma Huda, Special Rapporteur on Trafficking from 2004 to 2008, said:
“Prostitution as actually practised in the world usually does satisfy the elements of trafficking. It is rare that one finds a case in which the path to prostitution and/or a person’s experiences within prostitution do not involve, at the very least, an abuse of power and/or an abuse of vulnerability. Power and vulnerability in this context must be understood to include power disparities based on gender, race, ethnicity and poverty. Put simply, the road to prostitution and life within “the life” is rarely one marked by empowerment or adequate options.”86

Hypersexualised Media & Sexual Abuse

Experimental studies show young adults exposed to sexualised or objectifying content in mainstream media are more accepting of rape myths, violence-supportive and adversarial beliefs.87

Hyperseuxalised images contributes to a pressure and expectation on girls to be more sexually available, and contributes to sexual coercion. Our society is saturated with sexualised images of women, which contributes to the modern-day epidemic of girls’ and women’s poor mental health including poor body image, depression, anxiety, eating disorders, body dysmorphic disorders and obsessive-compulsive disorders a concerns.88

“Growing up in a world where, as a girl or a young woman, you can’t feel secure, because so many men think they have the right to abuse children and young women, degrades you as a human being. You are brainwashed into thinking that you don’t have the right to say no, that you don’t have the right to your own sexuality, that your sexuality belongs to men, whenever they feel the need to it. My ‘free choice’ in going in to prostitution wasn’t free, because I didn’t feel like I owned myself or my own sexuality. Abusive men made that choice for me, leading me to think that I was just an object for their satisfaction” Tanja Rahm, formerly prostituted woman89

“A hypersexualised world I want every woman leading this life to know that there is support- and other options available instead of having to sell sex in order to survive. I want everyone to thrive. That is a challenge because we live in a porn-saturated world that is manipulating young boys and girls, robbing them of the understanding of the real meaning of love, sex and intimacy. “ Genevieve Gilbert, formerly prostituted woman90

Footnotes

  1. B.Brents, K.Hausbeck (2005) Violence and Legalized Brothel Prostitution in Nevada: Examining Safety, Risk, and Prostitution Policy Research Article: https://doi.org/10.1177/0886260504270333
  2. G.McKibbin, C.Humphreys, B.Hamilton (2017): “Talking about child sexual abuse would have helped me”: Young people who sexually abused reflect on preventing harmful sexual behavior. Child Abuse & Neglect 70 (2017) 210–221 https://healthsciences.unimelb.edu.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0005/2473106/BHamilton_Talking-About-Child-Abuse-Would-Have-Helped-Me.pdf
  3. The Guardian, D.Gayle (3.2.2017) “Claims of Child-on-Child Sexual Offences Soar in England and Wales.” Retrieved 3.2.2017
  4. The Daily Telegraph,  H.Dixon (9.10.2017) Number of child-on-child sexual assaults almost doubles Retrieved 3.2.2017
  5. Childhood Wellbeing Research Centre, E. Munro (2011) The protection of children online: a brief scoping review to identify vulnerable groups
  6. Childhood Wellbeing Research Centre, E. Munro (2011) The protection of children online: a brief scoping review to identify vulnerable groups
  7. BBC K. Sellgren (15.6.2016) Pornography ‘desensitising young people’ Retrieved 2.3.2019
  8. M.Horvath L.Alys,K. Massey and A.Pina and M.Scally and J.Adler (2013) Basically… porn is everywhere: a rapid evidence assessment on the effects that access and exposure to pornography has on children and young people. Project Report. Office of the Children’s Commissioner for England, London, UK.  Retrieved 15.1.2019
  9. ITV news (3.12.2018) Reports of child-on-child sexual assaults increase by more than 500% Retrieved 2.3.2019
  10. D.Russell, N.Purcell. 2005. Exposure to pornography as a cause of child sexual victimization. In Handbook of Children, Culture, and Violence, N. Dowd, D.Singer, R.Wilson (eds). Sage: Thousand Oaks CA; 59-84.
  11. C.Norma: Teaching Tools and Recipe Books: Pornography and the Sexual Assault of Children, pp.202-206, M. Tankard-Reist and A.Bray (eds) Big Porn Inc: Exposing the Global Harms of the Pornography Industry, Spinifex (2011)
  12. A-M McAlinden (2006): “setting ‘em up”: Personal, familial and institutional grooming in the seuxal abuse of children.’ Social Legal Studies 15 (3) pp.339-362. Cf. also K Brandy (1993) “Testimony on pornography and incest’ in D.Russell (ed) Making violence sexy: feminist views on prongraphy. Teachers College Press, New York, pp.43-44 and S.Schafer (1988) Pornography as instruction manual for abuse’ in Everywoman (Ed) Ponrography and sexual violence: evidence of the links (p.126)
  13. The Independent B. Kentish (23.10.2018) Government failing to stop ‘routine and relentless’ sexual harassment of women and girls in public places, MPs warn Retrieved 3.2.2019)
  14. UK Parliament (23.10.2018) Sexual harassment of women and girls in public places: summary Retrieved 3.2.2019)
  15. UK Parliament (23.10.2018) Sexual harassment of women and girls in public places: summary Retrieved 3.2.2019
  16. The Conversation, S.Carr (1.11.2017)  How pornography removes empathy – and fosters harassment and abuse
  17. E. Lebloch and S. King (2006) Child sexual exploitation: A partnership response and model interventionArticle in Child Abuse Review 15(5):362 – 372 · September 2006 with 47 Reads DOI: 10.1002/car.957;  and Nadon S. M., Koverola C., Schludermann E. H. (1998). Antecedents to prostitution: Childhood victimization. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 13, 206–221. doi:10.1177/088626098013002003; S. Wisdom and J.Kuhns (1996)  Childhood victimization and subsequent risk for promiscuity, prostitution, and teenage pregnancy: a prospective study. Am J Public Health; 86(11): 1607–1612.
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